Frequently Asked Questions

1. Does J&T actually make foam?

We do not manufacture foam. We fabricate, laminate and convert foam into various formats and finished designs for our clients. There are only a handful of foam producers in North America that supply the fabricator and consumer base markets. Most producers specialize in only a couple of foam types. Our unique offering is to make these products readily available for your application in the shape and size required.

2. Is J&T ISO certified?

Yes. J&T is certified to the ISO 9001-2015 standard.

3. Is J&T C-TPAT certified?

J&T first became C-TPAT compliant in 2006.

4. Is J&T EDI ready?

Yes we are. We use a 3rd party company.

5. Does J&T have a U.S. location?

Yes. We operate several production facilities coast-to-coast concentrating on the processing of raw materials being supplied to U.S. foam fabricators. J&T does not solicit, supply or produce die cut parts outside of Canada.

6. Does J&T have a structured Health & Safety policy?

Yes we do. A copy can be provided upon request.

7. Does J&T have an engineering department?

Yes, we have a full time engineering team concentrating on our daily operations in various departments.

8. Is J&T certified under ITAR (Controlled Goods Directorate)?


9. Will J&T process materials supplied by the customer?

Occasionally. Proper R&D and prototype sign off is required before production begins. Please go to our Legal page for more details.

10. Does J&T make their own cutting tools?

No. We use outside tooling suppliers.

11. Is J&T's Laboratory A2LA Accredited?

Yes. Visit our A2LA page for more information.

12. What is RoHS ? Does J&T offer compliant material?

Restriction of Hazardous Substances, is a European Union directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electrical components. J&T has RoHS compliant materials.

13. What is ASTM?

American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials.

14. What does Nesting Mean?

The nesting of similar or different parts to be die cut on a single layout to maximize the material yield.

15. What is REACH? Does J&T offer compliant material?

It is a European Union regulation that deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Hazardous Chemical substances. J&T has various materials that are compliant with REACH.

16. What is the cost advantage of using Rolls?

  • Lower freight costs
  • Less material handling
  • Less roll changeovers during lamination
  • Less roll changeovers during slitting
  • Less roll changeovers during die cutting
  • Faster throughput
  • Improved service times and customer retention

17. What is the average turnaround time for Quotes and Samples?

We average 24-48 hours. For customized materials not commonly stocked, more time may be required for souring. You can obtain a quote or sample through our Quote Request page.

18. Where does J&T operate?

Jacobs & Thompson exclusively operates in Canada and the United States, operating 9 facilities throughout these regions.

19. How many employees does J&T have?

We have approximately 220 employees spread across 9 facilities.

1. What does “Shore” mean?

Durometer is one of several measures of the hardness of a foam or material. The durometer scale was defined by Albert F. Shore, who developed the measurement device called a durometer. The common test standard is ASTM D2240 (00) for a total of 12 scales, depending on the intended use; types A, B, C, D, DO, E, M, O, OO, OOO, OOO-S, and R. Each scale results in a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a harder material. With foams, the most common type of shore scale used is OO.

2. What is Compression Deflection (CFD)?

The amount of force required to compress a rubber cellular specimen by a given % over the entire top area of the specimen. (i.e. the force required to compress a ½” thick specimen 25% of its original thickness. It can be expressed in lb/in2 (pounds per square inch) or kPa (kilopascal).

3. SCE – 41; Types 1 and 2; Classes A, B, C, and D; Grades 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 – what does all this actually mean?

The test standard ASTM D1056 covers flexible cellular products, both open and closed cell. Designated numbers have changed over the years, but the basics remain the same…

SCE is now '2C'
SCE-41 is now 2C1
SCE-42 is now 2C2

The first number defines cell structure: 1 (Type 1) = open cell 2 (Type 2) = closed cell

The letter defines oil resistance:
A = no oil resistance required;
B = oil resistance with low mass change;
C = oil resistance with medium mass change;
D = requires extreme temperature resistance (-75 to 175°C or -103 to 347°F) but not oil resistance.

The last number defines compression deflection which ranges from 0 to 5.
Grade 0: For Types 1 and 2 cellular rubber, a compression-deflection range from 0 to 16 kPa 0 to 2 psi.
Grade 1: For Types 1 and 2 cellular rubber, a compression-deflection range from 15 to 35 kPa 2 to 5 psi.
Grade 2: For Types 1 and 2 cellular rubber, a compression-deflection range from 35 to 65 kPa 5 to 9 psi.
Grade 3: For Types 1 and 2 cellular rubber, a compression-deflection range from 65 to 90 kPa 9 to 13 psi.
Grade 4: For Types 1 and 2 cellular rubber, a compression-deflection range from 90 to 120 kPa 13 to 17 psi.
Grade 5: For Types 1 and 2 cellular rubber, a compression-deflection range from 120 to 170 kPa 17 to 25 psi)

4. What is Cell Count?

The number of cells per linear inch or centimeter, expressed as pore per inch or pores per centimeter.

5. Define Cell Size?

The average diameter of the cells in the final foam product, often measured in micron units.

6. What Does Closed-Cell Mean?

Foam cells having intact cell membranes thereby reducing or eliminating passageways for airflow.

7. What does Compression Set Mean?

A permanent partial loss of initial height of a foam sample due to a bending or collapse of the cell structure. Large percentages of compression set will cause a foam to quickly lose its original appearance, leaving its surface depressed or “hollowed out”.

8. Define Foam Density?

A measurement of the mass per unit volume. It is measured and expressed in pounds per cubic foot (pcf) or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3)

9. What is Indentation Force Deflection (IFD)?

A measure of the lead bearing capacity of foam. IFD is generally measured as the force (in pounds) required to compress a 50 square inch circular foot into a 4 inch thick sample, typically 15 inches square or larger, to a stated percentage of the sample’s initial height. Common IFD values are generated at 25 and 65 percent of initial height. (Note: previously called “ILD – Indentation Load Deflection)

10. What Does Open Cell Mean?

A permeable structure in flexible foam in which there is no barrier between cells, and gases or liquids can pass through the foam. Most cell walls have been ruptured to a varying extent. This is the opposite of closed cell foam.

11. Define Clickable & Non-Clickable Foam?

Non-Clickable will maintain a pinched edge when die cut, Clickable will pop back-up without pinching. These characteristics apply to Polyester Urethane foams.

12. Do all foams have a skin layer?

The outer layers of the master buns and rolls typically have a skin like surface. Depending on the thickness you require, some layers may be without skin or will be skin one-side only once the skiving process begins to peel down the master material. J&T can offer skin one-side of a foam but the remaining material from the master must also be accounted for. The fail-safe way to have skin on both sides of a foam is to purchase a product extruded to thickness. Speak to J&T for details as most foams cannot meet this requirement.

13. What colours can foam come in?

The most common foam colours are white, grey and black. Some foams can be produced to a specific colour match, but the minimum order volumes for this type of request are significantly higher for most foams. J&T can laminate other materials such as a textile and film to the top of your foam if a colour is needed.

14. What does the term 'Wet-Out' mean when referring to an adhesive?

Wet-out means the level of physical contact between an adhesive and substrate. A visual wet-out can be controlled when the adhesive is applied by machine or hand and is application controlled. A microscopic wet-out is related to temperature and length of time and is predicated on the chemistry of the adhesive and substrate.

15. What does 'surface energy' mean?

The tendency of a surface to repel, rather than attract, an adhesive. A low surface energy is a hard-to-stick-to surface, which reduces the force of attraction between two substrates. A high surface energy provides an easier-to-stick-to surface, increasing the force of attraction between substrates. A high surface energy substrate allows the adhesive to wet-out, which helps obtain a stronger bond. A low surface energy substrate requires a specially designed adhesive or a primer / promoter to alter the substrates surface energy.

1. Define Woven Fabrics?

The term woven is generally used to refer to fabric composed of two sets of yarns, warp and filling, that is formed by weaving, which is the interlacing of these sets of yarn. There may be two or more warps and fillings in a fabric, depending on the complexity of the construction. The manner in which the two sets of yarns are interlaced determines the weave. By using various combinations of the three basic weaves, plain, twill and satin, it is possible to produce an almost unlimited variety or construction. Other effects may be obtained by varying the type of yarns, filament or spun, and the fiber types, twist levels, etc.

2. Define Knit Fabrics?

A method of constructing fabric by interlocking series of loops of one or more yarns. The two major classes of knitting are warp knitting and weft knitting.

Warp Knitting: A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps on beams with one or more yarns for each needle. There are several types of warp knitting but the most common is tricot.

  1. Rachel Knitting: A versatile type of warp knitting made in plain and jacquard patterns. Rachel fabrics are generally coarser than other warp knit fabrics.
  2. Tricot Knitting: A run-resistant type of warp knitting in which either single or double sets or yarn are used.Tricot: A generic term for the most common type of warp-knit fabric. It has fine wales on the face and course wise ribs on the back. It can be made in a plain jersey construction or in meshes, stripes, and many other designs.

Weft Knitting: A common type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in the fabric making all of the loops in one course. Weft knitting includes circular and flat knitting.

  1. Circular Knitting: This fabric is produced on the knitting machine in the form of a tube, the threads running continuously around the fabric.
  2. Flat Knitting: This fabric is produced on the knitting machine in flat form.

Flat knitting diagram

3. What is a Greige fabric?

An unfinished fabric just off the loom or knitting machine. It is also referred to as grey fabric. This fabric has not been put through the dyeing or finishing process.

4. What are Non-Woven or Bonded-Fabrics?

These fabrics are made from webs of synthetic fibers bonded together with heat or adhesives. They are not as strong as woven or knitted fabrics but are still stable enough for most uses. Common names used for a non-woven fabric are Dacron, batting, spun bond, felt, Reemay.

5. What is Flocked Fabric?

Flocking is the application of fine particles to adhesive coated surfaces. Flocking of an article can be performed for the purpose of increasing its value in terms of the tactile sensation, aesthetics, colour and appearance. This is usually achieved by the application of a high-voltage electric field in the flocking equipment. Flock material flies vertically onto the substrate attaching to previously applied glue. A number of different substrates can be Flocked including; textiles, fabric, woven fabric, paper, PVC, sponge, toys, automotive plastic.

6. Define Brushed Fabric?

The process of running fine bristles over top the face side of a fabric to create tiny hairs or fiber pulls to improve the softness or hand feel. Brushed or looped fabrics commonly display hook engagement capabilities required in fabric attachment applications.

7. Can you flame laminate two fabrics together?

Yes. A thin foam layer is needed in between or another material that can melt and bond to the fabric layers without causing damage.

8. What is the average temperature of the flame when laminating materials?

The most recent test conducted showed the surface area nearest to the burner to be at 310 F to 330 F.

9. What is the thickest combination J&T can laminate together?

Two main factors determine the maximum thickness when we laminate:

First factor: the clearance between the nip and pinch rollers on each piece of equipment. The current maximum clearance on our flame lamination lines is 2.375”. The maximum on our flatbed lines is 7” thick.

Second Factor: Can we melt the material or the adhesive enough to bond the other layers? Certain types of materials burn at such a high heat level we cannot melt them on our equipment (i.e. rubber, silicone). The base material must melt just enough to create a bond between layers without damaging the face goods. The same is true on materials that burn at very low heat but we need to be extra careful not to singe or flatten these materials.